Contrary to many other infectious diseases, the novel COVID-19 virus does not have a direct connection to poor environments. Rather, the epicentres of the most severe outbreaks until mid-May 2020 were the wealthiest metropolises of industrialised countries. The international systems that chastened figures such as Keynes helped produce in the next few years – especially the Bretton Woods agreement and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade – set the terms under which the new wave of globalisation would take place.
- In Indonesia, a mass withdrawal of short-term capital caused real wages in manufacturing to drop 44 percent.
- Workers in some developing countries–say, Mexico–are losing their jobs in labor-intensive manufacturing to their counterparts in Asia.
- Where Krugman was derisive, others were solemn, putting the contemporary fight against the “anti-globalisation problems” left in a continuum of struggles for liberty.
- Feminists who theorize about justice on the domestic level argue that women’s experiences of gender oppression are shaped by other forms of oppression, such as those based on race, class, disability, and sexual orientation.
- This has happened everywhere, showing in some places in rising income and wealth differentials and in others in different employment prospects.
Now people can travel faster, communicate with each other, and benefit from life-saving medications. Technological and scientific advancements have made the world a better place. Improvement of lifestyle has increased the life expectancy of human beings. Global powers manipulate their money to increase their worth and demand. Currencies like euro, dollar, and pound are classic examples in this regard.
All persons experience long periods during which their lives literally depend on the care of others, and everyone needs some degree of care in order flourish. Thus, vulnerability, dependency, and need should be understood not as deficits or limitations, but rather as essential human qualities requiring an adequate political response. Mohanty claims that this perspective leads to a simplistic understanding of what feminists in Western countries can do to “help” women in developing nations. Many of the recent developments in the feminist literature on globalization can be understood as a response to this theoretical failure. ‘Feminist theoretical approaches to globalization’ is an umbrella term that refers to a number of specific theoretical approaches that feminists have used to articulate the challenges that globalization poses for women, people of color, and the global poor.
The ability of poor nations to make or import cheap copies of drugs still under patent in rich countries has been a boon to world public health. But the W.T.O. will require most of its poor members to accept patents on medicine by 2005, with the very poorest nations following in 2016. Medicine prices will probably double, but poor countries will never offer enough of a market to persuade the pharmaceutical industry to invent cures for their diseases.
Such loses of efficiency include over paying for resources, such as paying managers salaries higher than needed to secure their services, and excessive waste of resources. ‘X’ inefficiency means that average costs are higher than would be experienced by firms in more competitive markets. Risk bearing economies are often derived by large firms who can bear business risks more effectively than smaller firms. For example, a large record company can more easily bear the risk of a ‘flop’ than a smaller record label. However, economic theory suggests that average costs will eventually rise because of diseconomies of scale.
The introduction of school fees has made education unavailable to poorer children, especially to girls, leading to higher school dropout rates for girls in many southern countries . Cuts to other publicly funded social services also disproportionately harm women, whose care-giving responsibilities make them more reliant on these programs. Because austerity programs decrease public support for women and increase women’s workload, programs like these put women at greater risk for some mental health disorders . The third key feature of feminist approaches to globalization is an emphasis on feminist methodologies. In particular, these approaches tend to embody three key methodological commitments. The first is intersectionality, which maintains that systems of oppression interact to produce injustices, and thus, that gender injustices cannot be understood solely in terms of sex or gender.
Throughout this paper, there is an underlying focus on the impact of LPG on Indian economy. For a quarter century after World War II, most developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America insulated their economies from the rest of the world. For instance, between 1980 and 2000, trade in goods and services expanded from 23 to 46 percent of gross domestic product in China and from 19 to 30 percent in India. Such changes have caused many hardships for the poor in developing countries but have also created opportunities that some nations utilize and others do not, largely depending on their domestic political and economic institutions.
The population concentration in big cities has provoked an even more intensive agglomeration of social and economic activities in 3C environments, driving urban development. But, at the same time, the agglomeration of such urban activities directly backfired as the source of the self-propagating spread of COVID-19. Urbanisation and globalisation represent civilisational progress and they are highly intertwined with the decrease in the cost of moving people, goods, money, information, reducing transportation costs more broadly. They also allowed for the development of the ‘knowledge creation society’ of today, which is centred around global metropolises.
In terms of the latter aspect, the existing pattern of globalization is not an inevitable trend – it is at least in part the product of policy choices. Feminists argue that women’s lack of political influence at the global level has not been compensated for by their increased influence in national politics because globalization has undermined national sovereignty, especially in poor nations. Structural adjustment policies require debtor nations to implement specific domestic policies that disproportionately harm women, such as austerity measures, despite strong local opposition. For instance, Wilcox argues that transnational injustices generate strong moral claims to admission for certain groups of prospective migrants. Her second argument maintains that a commitment to relational egalitarianism entails rejecting immigration restrictions that contribute to oppressive transnational structural relations.